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Berry Head National Nature Reserve is another great place for fine coastal views, as well as getting up close with nature and history.

Dating origin orchidaceae

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Orchids live in nearly all ecosystems around the world except glaciers, true desert and open water, although tropical areas especially in Asia, Africa and the Americas are the hot spots of diversity.

Most grow as epiphytes on other plants, rocks or static objects for support and derive their nutrients and water from the atmosphere and debris, however many species grow in the ground in forest or grassland areas. Some, such as species in the subfamily is only 3-4 mm (0.16-0.2 inches) tall. Orchids are monocots, perennial herbs with simple leaves and parallel veins, and are well known for the rich diversity of their flower structures.

Moreover, since the introduction of tropical species into cultivation in the 19th century, horticulturists have produced more than 100,000 hybrids and cultivars.

Orchids are easily distinguished from other plants, as they share some very evident, shared derived characteristics, or "apomorphies".

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To evaluate how the newly estimated ages may influence the evolutionary interpretation of a species-level phylogeny, we assess divergence times for the South American genus Our results provide additional support that all extant orchids shared a most recent common ancestor in the Late Cretaceous (~77 million years ago, Ma).However, we estimate the crown age of the five orchid subfamilies to be generally (~1-8 Ma) younger than previously calculated under the Penalized Likelihood algorithm and using a single internal fossil calibration.The crown age of Contrary to recent suggestions that orchid diversification began in a period of global warming, our results place the onset of diversification of the largest orchid subfamilies (Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae) in a period of global cooling subsequent to the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum.The Orchidaceae have about 28,000 currently accepted species, distributed in about 763 genera.The determination of which family is larger is still under debate, because verified data on the members of such enormous families are continually in flux.For example, the bee orchids (genus has an extremely long spur with nectar at the end, which led Charles Darwin to posit that this species was pollinated by a moth with a proboscis of unprecedented length.